Cash /TOM/ SPOT – date on which the exchange of currencies actually take place.
Forward Transaction – Beyond Spot date
Value date economy
Central bank interventions
Derivatives Forwards, Futures, Options, Swaps
Financial contract whose value is derived from or depends on the price of some underlying asset. Value of derivative changes when there is a change in the price of the underlying related asset.
Forward – to buy a specified asset on a specified date at a specified price. Both right and obligation. Future Contract – similar to forward contract. A Currency futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell at ‘futures exchange’ a standard quantity of a foreign currency at a future date at the price agreed to between the parties to the contract Difference – Contracts standardized, price negotiated. Exchange traded – no default risk –clearing house becomes the opposite party to both buyer and seller. Most contracts are eventually offset.Only a small portion results in actual delivery.
Profits/ Losses on forward contracts are realized only on the delivery day, the change in the value of a futures contract results in cash flow every day- hence less default risk
Option Gives the buyers right but no obligation to buy or sell the underlying at the agreed rate on or before an agreed date, Premium Call Option Put Option Seller (Writer) American style options – on or before the expiration date European Style options – only on the expiration date Swaps Contractual agreements between two parties to exchange flows -very common and popular product in derivative markets. IRS – No exchange of principal but periodic exchange of streams of interest payments in terms of predetermined terms on a notional agreed principal. Currency Swap – two parties agree to exchange specific amounts of two different currencies in the beginning and make periodic payments over time in accordance with predetermined terms. IRS – Plain Vanilla
Documentary L/C LC is an arrangement whereby a bank acting at the request of the customer undertakes to pay a third party by a given date according to agreed stipulations and against presentation of documents the counter-value of goods and services supplied. Banks deal only in documents and not in goods.
Factoring An arrangement for financing a company’s Business against the unpaid invoices drawn in favor of the customers and in which the factor becomes responsible for all credit control, sales ledger administration and debt collection activities. Debt Administration Credit Protection Factor Financing Factoring can be defined as A continuing legal relationship between a financial institution (the Factor ) and a business concern (the client ) selling goods or providing services to trade customers (the Customer ) on open account basis whereby the Factor purchases the client’s book debts (receivables) either with or without recourse to the client and in relation thereto controls the credit extended to customers and administers the sales ledgers.
Forfeiting A mechanism of financing exports by - discounting export receivables - evidenced by bills of exchange or promissory notes - without recourse to the seller - carrying medium to long term maturities - on a fixed rate basis - Upto 100 percent of the contract value Simply put, forfeiting is the non-recourse discounting of export receivables. The exporter surrenders, without recourse to him, his rights to claim for payment on goods delivered to an importer, in return for immediate cash payment from a forfeiter. As a result, an exporter in India can convert a credit sale in to a cash sale, with no recourse to him / his banker
All exports of capital goods and other goods made on medium to long term credit are eligible to be financed through forfeiting Flow- Chart Exporter finalizes contract with overseas buyer and opens LC through his bank. Exporter ships the goods as per schedule agreed with buyer Exporter draws series of bills of exchange and sends them along with the shipping documents, to his banker for presentation to importer for acceptance through latter’s bank. Bank returns accepted bills of exchange to exporter. Exporter informs the importer’s bank about assignment of proceeds of transaction to the Forfeiting bank Exporter endorses avalised Bill of Exchange (BOE) with the words “ Without Recourse” and forwards them to the Forfeiting Agency (FA) through his bank. The FA effects payment of discounted value Exporter’s bank credit exporter On maturity of BOE, the FA presents the instruments to the Available for payment
Correspondent Bank – The interbank market is a network of correspondent banking relationships with large commercial banks maintaining demand deposits account with one another, called correspondent banking accounts. The correspondent bank account network allows for the efficient functioning of the foreign exchange market
SWIFT – a private non-profit message transfer system. Provides an exclusive telecommunication network throughout the world for transmission of financial messages among banks and financial institutions CHIPS provides a clearinghouse for the interbank settlement of U S dollar payments between international banks. A net payment settlement system
FED WIRE – Communication network of the Federal Reserve Bank- An automated computer based message system which follows Gross settlement as compared to Net payment system in CHIPS. Mainly used for Interbank fund transfers, sale and purchase of certain securities among banks, settlement of large value commercial transactions, payments received from other countries in favor of U.S. Banks CHAPS – In London, similar to CHIPS in New York
NRE and FCNR Accounts: Reserve Bank Of India It is empowered under the statute to control and regulate foreign exchange reserves and policies related to international trade, Inflow/outflow of foreign exchange, It also has supervisory powers over the persons authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Reserve Bank Of India An essential function of a central bank is to maintain the stability of the external value of the domestic currency corresponding to the economic strength of the country and the monetary and fiscal policies of the authorities concerned. Reserve Bank Of India The guidelines and directions by RBI, so issued relate to foreign exchange transactions relating to exports, imports, remittances, travel and tourism, investments in India, repatriation of funds, non-resident Indian segment, as also overseas investment by Indian residents. One important function of RBI is compiling data related to export-import trade, forex markets, non-resident deposits, as also international assets and liabilities. FEMA, 1999 All transactions in Foreign exchange are governed by FEMA 1999. FEMA replaced FERA,1976. Important Provisions of FEMA related to exports, imports, exchange rates, currency of payments, NRIs, etc… Provisions for Foreign Travel. Other Remittances. Foreign Currency A/C in India Exchange Earners Foreign Currency (EEFC) A/Cs Resident Foreign Currency (RFC) Accounts Resident Foreign Currency (Domestic EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF INDIA
Established by an Act of Parliament in 1981. Bank commenced operations on March 1, 1982. Exim Bank's mission is to facilitate globalization of Indian business. Objectives of EXIM Bank To translate national foreign trade policies into concrete action points. To provide alternate financing solutions to the Indian exporter, aiding him in his efforts to be internationally competitive. To develop mutually beneficial relationships with the international financial community To initiate and participate in debates on issues central to India's international trade To forge close working relationships with other export development and financing agencies, multilateral funding agencies and national trade and investment promotion agencies. To anticipate and absorb new developments in banking, export financing and information technology. To be responsive to export problems of Indian exporters and pursue policy resolutions. EXIM Bank Financing Programmes For Exporters and Importers For Commercial Banks For Foreign Governments, Foreign Importers and other Financial Institutions. Deferred Payment Exports/Project Exports. Assistance for Project Exports/Turnkey Projects/Construction Projects. Other Services and Programmes
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. (ECGC) It was set up for the promotion of exports in the year 1957. To protect the exporters from any financial loss. Primary goal of ECGC : To support & strengthen the export promotion drive in India by providing a range of credit risk insurance covers to exporters against loss in export of goods and service also by offering guarantee covers to banks and financial institutions to enable exporters to obtain better facilities from them.
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. (ECGC) ECGC issues various types of guarantees to banks, financing exporters, which protect banks in case of loss from their advances to exporters.
Guarantees to Banks At pre-shipment stage At post-shipment stage
ECGC is a backbone of Indian Project Exports.
ECGC provides cover to various types of risks, namely, Risk of not receiving payment from foreign buyers, Trading on short term credit, Of not receiving payments in respect of deffered payment exports, and In respect of services rendered and construction projects undertaken abroad. FEDAI
Foreign Exchange Dealer's Association of India (FEDAI) was set up in 1958.
Role of FEDAI It's major activities include - framing of rules governing the conduct of inter-bank foreign exchange business among banks vis-à-vis public, and liaison with RBI for reforms and development of forex market. Role of FEDAI Functions: Set guidelines and rules for forex business. Training the bank Personnel Accreditation of Forex Brokers Advising/ assisting member banks in settling issues/ matters in their dealings. Represent members on govt. / RBI/ other bodies. Monitor developments Identify problems/ difficulties Ensure proper adherence.